Mother’s Day is a holiday honoring motherhood that is observed indifferent forms throughout the world. The American incarnation ofMother’s Day was created by Anna Jarvis in 1908 and became an officialU.S. holiday in 1914. Jarvis would later denounce the holiday’scommercialization and spent the latter part of her life trying to remove it from the calendar. While dates and celebrations vary, Mother’s Daymost commonly falls on the second Sunday in May and traditionallyinvolves presenting mothers with flowers, cards and other gifts.
Mother’s Day History
Origin of Mother’s Day goes back to the era of ancient Greek and Romans. But the roots of Mother’s Day history can also be traced in UK where a Mothering Sunday was celebrated much before the festival saw the light of the day in US. However, the celebration of the festival as it is seen today is a recent phenomenon and not even a hundred years old. Thanks to the hard work of the pioneering women of their times, Julia Ward Howe and Anna Jarvis that the day came into existence. Today the festival of Mothers day is celebrated across 46 countries (though on different dates) and is a hugely popular affair. Millions of people across the globe take the day as an opportunity to honor their mothers, thank them for their efforts in giving them life, raising them and being their constant support and well wisher.
“Life began with waking up and loving my mother’s face.” —George Eliot
Earliest History of Mothers Day
The earliest history of Mothers Day dates back to the ancient annual spring festival the Greeks dedicated to maternal goddesses. The Greeks used the occasion to honor Rhea, wife of Cronus and the mother of many deities of Greek mythology.
Ancient Romans, too, celebrated a spring festival, called Hilaria dedicated to Cybele, a mother goddess. It may be noted that ceremonies in honor of Cybele began some 250 years before Christ was born. The celebration made on the Ides of March by making offerings in the temple of Cybele lasted for three days and included parades, games and masquerades. The celebrations were notorious enough that followers of Cybele were banished from Rome.
Early Christians celebrated a Mother’s Day of sorts during the festival on the fourth Sunday of Lent in honor of the Virgin Mary, the Mother of Christ. In England the holiday was expanded to include all mothers. It was then called Mothering Sunday.
History of Mother’s Day: Mothering Sunday
The more recent history of Mothers Day dates back to 1600s in England. Here a Mothering Sunday was celebrated annually on the fourth Sunday of Lent (the 40 day period leading up to Easter) to honor mothers. After a prayer service in church to honor Virgin Mary, children brought gifts and flowers to pay tribute to their own mothers.
On the occasion, servants, apprentices and other employees staying away from their homes were encouraged by their employers to visit their mothers and honor them. Traditionally children brought with them gifts and a special fruit cake or fruit-filled pastry called a simnel. Yugoslavs and people in other nations have observed similar days.
Custom of celebrating Mothering Sunday died out almost completely by the 19th century. However, the day came to be celebrated again after World War II, when American servicemen brought the custom and commercial enterprises used it as an occasion for sales.
Mother’s Day: Founding by Anna Jarvis
The official Mother’s Day holiday arose in the 1900s as a result ofthe efforts of Anna Jarvis, daughter of Ann Reeves Jarvis. Following her mother’s 1905 death, Anna Jarvis conceived of Mother’s Day as a way ofhonoring the sacrifices mothers made for their children. After gainingfinancial backing from a Philadelphia department store owner named JohnWanamaker, in May 1908 she organized the first official Mother’s Daycelebration at a Methodist church in Grafton, West Virginia. That same day also saw thousands of people attend a Mother’s Day event at one of Wanamaker’s retail stores in Philadelphia.
Following the success of her first Mother’s Day, Jarvis—who remainedunmarried and childless her whole life—resolved to see her holiday added to the national calendar. Arguing that American holidays were biasedtoward male achievements, she started a massive letter writing campaignto newspapers and prominent politicians urging the adoption of a special day honoring motherhood. By 1912 many states, towns and churches hadadopted Mother’s Day as an annual holiday, and Jarvis had establishedthe Mother’s Day International Association to help promote her cause.Her persistence paid off in 1914 when President Woodrow Wilson signed a measure officially establishing the second Sunday in May as Mother’s Day.
Anna Jarvis had originally conceived of Mother’s Day as a day ofpersonal celebration between mothers and families. Her version of theday involved wearing a white carnation as a badge and visiting one’smother or attending church services. But once Mother’s Day became anational holiday, it was not long before florists, card companies andother merchants capitalized on its popularity.
While Jarvis had initially worked with the floral industry to helpraise Mother’s Day’s profile, by 1920 she had become disgusted with howthe holiday had been commercialized. She outwardly denounced thetransformation and urged people to stop buying Mother’s Day flowers,cards and candies. Jarvis eventually resorted to an open campaignagainst Mother’s Day profiteers, speaking out against confectioners,florists and even charities. She also launched countless lawsuitsagainst groups that had used the name “Mother’s Day,” eventuallyspending most of her personal wealth in legal fees. By the time of herdeath in 1948 Jarvis had disowned the holiday altogether, and evenactively lobbied the government to see it removed from the Americancalendar.
Mother’s Day: Celebrations and Traditions
While versions of Mother’s Day are celebrated throughout the world,traditions vary depending on the country. In Thailand, for example,Mother’s Day is always celebrated in August on the birthday of thecurrent queen, Sirikit. Another alternate observance of Mother’s Day can be found in Ethiopia, where families gather each fall to sing songs and eat a large feast as part of Antrosht, a multi-day celebration honoring motherhood.
In the United States, Mother’s Day continues to be celebrated bypresenting mothers and other women with gifts and flowers, and it hasbecome one of the biggest holidays for consumer spending. Families might also celebrate by giving mothers a day off from activities like cooking or other household chores. At times Mother’s Day has also been a datefor launching political or feminist causes. In 1968 Coretta Scott King, wife of Martin Luther King Jr., used Mother’s Day to host a march in support of underprivileged womenand children. In the 1970s women’s groups also used the holiday as atime to highlight the need for equal rights and access to childcare.
Note: It is unfortunate to note that Ms Anna Jarvis, who devoted her life for the declaration of Mothers Day holiday was deeply hurt to note the huge commercialization of the day.